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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) were initially characterized as "garbage" bags with the finality to remove unwanted material from the cells. It is now becoming clear that EVs mediate intercellular communication between distant cells through a transfer of genetic material, a process important to the systemic adaptation in physiological and pathological conditions. Although speculative, it has been suggested that the majority of EVs that make it into the bloodstream would be coming from skeletal muscle, since it is one of the largest organs in the human body. While it is well established that skeletal muscle secretes peptides (currently known as myokines) into the bloodstream, the notion that skeletal muscle releases EVs is in its infancy. Besides intercellular communication and systemic adaptation, EV release could represent the mechanism by which muscle adapts to certain stimuli. This review will summarize the current understanding of EV biology and biogenesis, current isolation methods, and briefly discuss the possible role EVs have in regulating skeletal muscle mass.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
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A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
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