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Neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for the involvement of frontal and parietal cortices in postural control. However, the specific role of these brain areas for postural control remain to be known. In this study, we investigated the effects of disruptive TMS over supplementary motor areas (SMA) during challenging continuous balance task in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that a virtual lesion of SMA will alter activation within the brain network identified using electroencephalography (EEG) and impair performance of the postural task. Twenty healthy young adults received either continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) or sham stimulation over SMA followed by the performance of a continuous balance task with or without somatosensory input distortion created by sway-referencing the support surface. cTBS over SMA compared to sham stimulation showed a smaller increase in RMS COP as the difficulty of continuous balance task increased suggestive of altered postural control mechanisms to find a stable solution under challenging sensory conditions. Consistent with earlier studies, we found sources of EEG activation within anterior cingulate (AC), cingulate gyrus (CG), bilateral posterior parietal regions (LPP and RPP) during the balance task. Importantly, cTBS over SMA compared to sham stimulation altered EEG power within the identified fronto-parietal regions. These findings suggest that the changes in activation within distant fronto-parietal brain areas following cTBS over SMA contributed to the altered postural behavior. Our study confirms a critical role of AC, CG, and both PPC regions in calibrating online postural responses during a challenging continuous balance task.
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A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.
A composite area of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor control and sensory perception comprising the motor cortex areas, the somatosensory areas, the gustatory cortex, the olfactory areas, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.