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The callitrichids are non-human primates that feed on insects and plant matter in nature, but in captivity, they are fed mostly an artificial diet containing amounts of gluten, in their toxic forms in items such as wheat, barley and rye. The aim of this research was to estimate the blood β-defensin and Toll like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene expressions and to analyze the stool consistency (firm, soft, diarrheic) in Leontocebus fuscicollis raised in captivity. Blood samples of animals under gluten-free and gluten diets were collected and their fecal output quality was periodically monitored and classified during the course of the study. Gene expression was evaluated using real-time PCR. The stool consistencies of individuals fed a gluten diet were most frequently soft or diarrheic, while it was mostly normal in individuals fed a gluten-free diet. β-Defensin expression increased in individuals fed a gluten diet, but decreased after 15 days. Expression normalized between 30 and 45 days on a gluten-free diet. However, expression of the TLR5 gene did not change under a gluten diet. A gluten diet affects stool quality, and brings about an immediate increase in blood β-defensin expression in the beginning but decreases after 15 days.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular biology reports
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A transcriptional repressor protein that contains an N-terminal PR-SET domain, four C-terminal CYS2-HIS2 ZINC FINGERS, and binds the PRDI element in the INTERFERON-BETA gene. It has methyltransferase activity and mediates gene transcription in tissue-specific innate and adaptive immune lymphocyte T-CELLS, repressing expression of proteins that promote exit of these tissue-specific T-cell populations from non-lymphoid organs.
A malabsorption syndrome characterized by collagenous mucosal lesions of the SMALL INTESTINE, atrophy of MICROVILLI, severe malabsorption, diarrhea, and MALNUTRITION often refractory to a gluten-free diet.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...