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Epsilon toxin (Etx), a potent pore forming toxin (PFT) produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia of ruminants and has been suggested to play a role in multiple sclerosis in humans. Etx is a member of the aerolysin family of β-PFTs (aβ-PFTs). While the Etx soluble monomer structure was solved in 2004, Etx pore structure has remained elusive due to the difficulty of isolating the pore complex. Here we show the cryo-electron microscopy structure of Etx pore assembled on the membrane of susceptible cells. The pore structure explains important mutant phenotypes and suggests that the double β-barrel, a common feature of the aβ-PFTs, may be an important structural element in driving efficient pore formation. These insights provide the framework for the development of novel therapeutics to prevent human and animal infections, and are relevant for nano-biotechnology applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature communications
Epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, a major causative agent of enterotoxaemia causes significant economic losses to animal industry. Conventional vaccines against th...
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is hypothesized to mediate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by binding to the myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) on the luminal surface of endothelia...
Clostridium perfringens type A is the causative agent of gas gangrene and gastroenteric ("yellow lamb disease") disease in ruminants, with C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA) being the main virulence fac...
The Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), encoded by the plc gene, is the causative pathogen of gas gangrene, which is a lethal infection. In this study, we used an E. coli system for the efficie...
Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen of human and livestock infections, posing a threat to health. The horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids that carry toxin-related genes is involved...
Study Design: Randomized Single Blind Study Objective: To determine the dose relationship of DWP 450 for finger flexor spasticity Subjects: 78 patients with upper extremity spasticity afte...
The purpose of this study is three fold: 1)To collect serum from patients with documented Clostridium difficile infection and test for the presence of antibody to C. difficile toxin at the...
MK-3415A is the combination of monoclonal antibodies to Clostridium (C.) difficile toxin A (MK-3415) and toxin B (MK-6072). This study will investigate whether: 1) treatment with MK-6072 o...
The purpose of the protocol is to demonstrate the safety and the efficacy of a single injection of a new formulation of Clostridium Botulinum toxin type A haemagglutinin complex (BTX A HAC...
The investigators primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing bleeding and transfusion in cardiac surgery, wi...
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Bioscience - any of the sciences that deal with living organisms. The study of the nature, behavior, and uses of living organisms as applied to biology. Any of the branches of natural science dealing with living things, such as their structure, b...