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Maintenance of information in working memory (WM) is assumed to rely on refreshing and elaboration, but clear mechanistic descriptions of these cognitive processes are lacking, and it is unclear whether they are simply two labels for the same process. This fMRI study investigated the extent to which refreshing, elaboration, and repeating of items in WM are distinct neural processes with dissociable behavioral outcomes in WM and long-term memory (LTM). Multivariate pattern analyses of fMRI data revealed differentiable neural signatures for these processes, which we also replicated in an independent sample of older adults. In some cases, the degree of neural separation within an individual predicted their memory performance. Elaboration improved LTM, but not WM, and this benefit increased as its neural signature became more distinct from repetition. Refreshing had no impact on LTM, but did improve WM, although the neural discrimination of this process was not predictive of the degree of improvement. These results demonstrate that refreshing and elaboration are separate processes that differently contribute to memory performance.
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It is well-known that age differentially impacts aspects of long-term episodic memory (EM): Whereas a binding deficit indicates that older adults are less capable than younger adults to encode or retr...
In the present study, we used an item-method directed-forgetting paradigm to test whether instructions to forget or remember one item affect memory for subsequently studied items. In two experiments (...
Patient memory for the contents of treatment sessions is poor and this is associated with worse treatment outcome. Preliminary findings indicate that treatment provider use of memory support can be he...
Memory is enhanced for words encoded in the context of an imagined survival scenario, an effect modulated by word imageability or concreteness. However, the mechanisms underlying this "survival proces...
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is used to screen for dementia in many Wisconsin Alzheimer Institute memory care clinics. After observing a pattern of lo...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Response Elaboration Training (RET), which is a speech/language therapy for aphasia. The study is designed to determine whether verb...
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is the safest and most accessible, non-invasive brain stimulation technique available for testing causal links between different brain region...
Prospective memory is the ability to implement an intention to the future (e.g. remember to take medication, attend a scheduled meeting), and has receive little attention in addiction. The...
Memory deficits after brain damage are common and there is still a need for evaluated therapy methods. In this study we compare two therapeutic interventions and investigate whether therap...
Head impacts in sports can lead to brain injury even when the participant is wearing a helmet. The forces that contribute to brain injury from sports-related head impacts are not well und...
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
A neuropsychological test designed to assess different memory functions. It may incorporate an optional cognitive exam (Brief Cognitive Status Exam) that helps to assess memory related cognitive function.
Neurological process involving the conversion of learned information into long-term memory.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Temporary storage of information for a few seconds to hours, as opposed to long-term memory which refers to material stored for days, years, or a lifetime.