Ideal Dose and Injection Site for Gummy Smile Treatment with Botulinum Toxin-A: A Systematic Review and Introduction of a Case Study.

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Summary of "Ideal Dose and Injection Site for Gummy Smile Treatment with Botulinum Toxin-A: A Systematic Review and Introduction of a Case Study."

The objective of this article is to review ideal injection point and ideal dose of botulinum toxin-A injections to treat different types of gummy smile, and to present a case treated with the recommended method. An electronic search of literature was carried out by using PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. Reference lists of studies were also hand-searched for relevance. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, five prospective studies with 135 subjects were included in this systematic review. Injection of botulinum toxin-A is a noninvasive and temporary treatment option for gummy smile, and the Yonsei point is a safe and reproducible injection point for treatment by practitioners of all types of gummy smile.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry
ISSN: 1945-3388
Pages: e167-e173


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Adverse reactions that occur initially at the site of injection or infusion. Milder type is confined to a local allergic flare reaction. A more severe reaction is caused by extravasation of VESICANTS from the blood vessel at the site of injection and can cause damage to the surrounding tissue. In tumor flare reaction symptoms involve well beyond the injection site such as an increase in the tumor size and tumor markers levels, bone pain, and HYPERCALCEMIA.

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