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The comprehensive optimization of lead-acid battery system (LABS) can promote the relationship between the development of human-socio-economic system and environment. Based on the lead anthropogenic cycle, LABS is divided into four stages: production of primary lead (PPL), fabrication and manufacture (F&M), use and waste management and recycling (WM&R). According to the relationship between LABS and external environment, a framework is developed for the coupling of composite flow (material flow, energy flow and value flow). The quantitative relations between external performance indicators (lead ore consumption, scrap lead emissions, energy consumption and increase in value) and the internal factors are established, and key factors that affect external performance and their impact level are identified. The results of Chinese LABS in 2014 indicate that the external performance of the material flow reduced as the decrease of the emission rates of PPL (γ), F&M (γ) and WM&R (γ) and the increase of the large recycling rate (α) and production ratio. The impact level of the former three was 1.5-2.2 times higher than those of the latter two. γ, γ and α had the higher impact level on energy consumption in descending order. The impact level of the emission rates was 2.0-3.0 times higher than that of the recycling rate. γ, α, γ, γ, in descending order, were the four higher factors that affected the increase in value, and the impact levels of the farmer two were 1.5-2.0 times higher than those of the latter two. Moreover, γ and γ were the factors that influenced the whole external environment greater. The decreasing order of influence degree of the above factors on the external performance indicators was increase in value, energy consumption and the external performance indicators of material flow. The impact from coupling coefficients between energy, value and material on external performance is less than the above factors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Locations, on the GENOME, of GENES or other genetic elements that encode or control the expression of a quantitative trait (QUANTITATIVE TRAIT, HERITABLE).
Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.