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Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. It plays an important role in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism. Lack of the SCD1 gene increases the rate of fatty acid β-oxidation through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the upregulation of genes that are related to fatty acid oxidation. The mechanism of AMPK activation under conditions of SCD1 deficiency has been unclear. In the present study, we found that the ablation/inhibition of SCD1 led to AMPK activation in skeletal muscle through an increase in AMP levels whereas muscle-specific SCD1 overexpression decreased both AMPK phosphorylation and the adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate (AMP/ATP) ratio. Changes in AMPK phosphorylation that were caused by SCD1 down- and upregulation affected NAD levels following changes in NAD -dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) activity and histone 3 (H3K9) acetylation and methylation status. Moreover, mice with muscle-targeted overexpression of SCD1 were more susceptible to high-fat diet-induced lipid accumulation and the development of insulin resistance compared with wild-type mice. These data show that SCD1 is involved in nucleotide (ATP and NAD ) metabolism and suggest that the SCD1-dependent regulation of muscle steatosis and insulin sensitivity are mediated by cooperation between AMPK- and SIRT1-regulated pathways. Altogether, the present study reveals a novel mechanism that links SCD1 with the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of cellular physiology
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A multisubunit enzyme complex that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by deacetylating the HISTONE residues of NUCLEOSOMES.
A histone-lysine N-methyltransferase and catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. It methylates LYSINE 9 (H3K9me) and LYSINE 27 (H3K27me) of HISTONE H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. EZH2 also methylates non-histone proteins such as GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the nuclear receptor RORA. It regulates CIRCADIAN CLOCKS via histone methylation at the PROMOTER REGIONS of the circadian genes and its repressive activity is also important for the identity and differentiation of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
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A serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in AUTOPHAGY in response to starvation. It acts on the PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE complex PIK3C3 to regulate AUTOPHAGOSOME formation. It also functions as both a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is activated by AMPK, which it also negatively regulates.
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