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Emergent large vessel occlusion accounts for 20-40% of ischemic strokes and is the most debilitating form of stroke. Some of the earliest changes in response to ischemic stroke occur in blood gases and electrolytes. These biochemical changes occur within minutes after occlusion in experimental models of stroke and can be utilized to predict stroke outcomes. The majority of ELVO stroke patients are middle-aged to elderly and are of both sexes, revealing that there is an age and sex mismatch between ischemic stroke patients and animal models, since most experimental studies use young male rats. Rethinking of the animal models should be considered, especially in encouraging the use of aged male and female rats with comorbidities to more closely mirror human populations. Mechanical thrombectomy provides a unique opportunity for researchers to further this work by expanding the collection and analysis of blood samples that are adjacent to the thrombus. To understand the complexity of stroke, researchers can analyze these tissues for different molecular targets that occur in response to ischemic stroke. This information may aid in the reduction of symptom burden for individuals diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Investigators should also focus on data from ischemic stroke patients and attempt to discover target molecules and then in animal models to establish mechanism, which will aid in the development of new stroke therapies. This review discusses the translation of these studies to the human patient to develop the capability to predict stroke outcomes. Future studies are needed to identify molecular targets to predict the risk of worsened long-term outcomes and/or increased risk for mortality.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuromolecular medicine
Ischemic stroke is the one of the most severe and debilitating diseases, and despite animal models, there is much to learn about the neuropathology in humans in a way that could inform the development...
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The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
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A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Strokes are a medical emergency and prompt treatment is essential because the sooner a person receives treatment for a stroke, the less damage is ...