Oolong Tea Extract and Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Reduce Transformation of l-Carnitine to Trimethylamine--Oxide and Decrease Vascular Inflammation in l-Carnitine Feeding Mice.

08:00 EDT 9th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Oolong Tea Extract and Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Reduce Transformation of l-Carnitine to Trimethylamine--Oxide and Decrease Vascular Inflammation in l-Carnitine Feeding Mice."

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly ( < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly ( < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased in mice.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
ISSN: 1520-5118


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC

A high-affinity, ATP-binding, co-transporter for CARNITINE that is highly expressed in kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, and placental tissues. It transports one sodium ion with one carnitine molecule. It has a lower affinity for other organic cations and transports them independently of sodium. Mutations in the SLC22A5 gene are associated with systemic carnitine deficiency.

A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MELISSA. The common name of bergamot is also used for Citrus bergamia (CITRUS).

A dehydrated extract of thyroid glands. After the removal of fat and connective tissue, the extract is dried or lyophilized to yield a yellowish to buff-colored amorphous powder containing 0.17-0.23% of iodine.

A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.

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