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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic disorders among the White population. The disease has a progressive course and leads to a reduction in the quality of life and of life expectancy. Standard diagnostic procedures used in the monitoring of CF patients include methods which expose patients to ionizing radiation. With increasing life expectancy in CF the cumulative dose of ionising radiation increases, prompting clinicians' search for safer imaging studies. Despite its safety and availability lung ultrasound (LUS) is not routinely used in the diagnostic evaluation of CF patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of LUS in children with CF compared to a chest X-ray, and to assess the diagnostic value of the recently developed LUS score-CF-USS (Cystic Fibrosis Ultrasound Score). LUS was performed in 48 CF children and adolescents aged from 5 to 18 years (24 girls and 24 boys). LUS consisted of the assessment of the pleura, lung sliding, A-line and B-line artefacts, "lung rockets", alveolar consolidations, air bronchogram and pleural effusion. Chest radiography was performed in all patients and analyzed according to the modified Chrispin-Norman score. LUS was analyzed according to CF-USS. The correlation between the CF-USS and the modified Chrispin-Norman scores was moderate (R = 0.52, p = 0.0002) and strong in control studies. In 75% of patients undergoing LUS, small areas of subpleural consolidations were observed, which were not visible on x-rays. At the same time, LUS was not sensitive enough to visualize bronchial pathology, which plays an important role in assessing the progression of the disease. Conclusions: LUS constitutes an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of subpleural consolidations. CF-USS results correlate with the conventional x-ray modified Chrispin-Norman score. LUS should be considered a supplementary radiographic examination in the monitoring of CF patients, and CF-USS may provide clinicians with valuable information concerning the progression of the disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
Very small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content, etc. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.
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