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The γ-secretase complex is composed of four membrane protein subunits, including presenilin as the catalytic component with aspartyl protease activity. The enzyme cleaves within the transmembrane domain of >70 different type I integral membrane proteins and has been dubbed "the proteasome of the membrane". The most studied substrates include the Notch family of receptors, involved in cell differentiation, and the amyloid precursor protein (APP), involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A central mechanistic question is how γ-secretase recognizes helical transmembrane substrates and carries out processive proteolysis. Recent findings addressing substrate recognition and processing will be discussed, including the role of protease subunit nicastrin as a gatekeeper, the effects of Alzheimer-causing mutations in presenilin on processive proteolysis of APP, and evidence that three pockets in the active site (S1', S2', and S3') determine carboxypeptidase cleavage of substrate in intervals of three residues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular biophysics of membranes and membrane proteins.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP), first extracellularly by β-secretase and then within the membrane by γ-secretase, produces β-amyloid peptides (Aβ). Aβ accumulates in the brain to ...
γ-Secretase is a membrane-embedded aspartyl protease complex central in biology and medicine. How this enzyme recognizes transmembrane substrates and catalyzes hydrolysis in the lipid bilayer is uncl...
EphA/ephrin signaling regulates axon growth and guidance of neurons, but whether this process occurs also independently of ephrins is unclear. We show that presenilin-1 (PS1)/γ-secretase is required ...
Neuregulin 2 (NRG2) belongs to the EGF family of growth factors. Most of this family members require proteolytic cleavage to liberate their ectodomains capable of binding and activating their cognate ...
Single-point mutations in the genes coding for amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1), the active subunit of γ-secretase that cleaves APP to produce Aβ, are the main causes of rare b...
This phase II trial studies the effects, good and bad, of gamma secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 and to see how well it works in treating patients with acquired immune deficiency virus (AID...
RATIONALE: Enzyme inhibitors, such as gamma-secretase inhibitor RO4929097, may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. PURPOSE: This phase I...
RATIONALE: Gamma-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hy...
This randomized phase I/II clinical trial is studying the side effects and best dose of gamma-secretase/notch signalling pathway inhibitor RO4929097 when given together with vismodegib and...
RATIONALE: Gamma-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. PURPOSE: This phase I/II clinical trial is study...
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U5 snRNP along with U4-U6 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form SPLICEOSOMES.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.
Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...