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The question of whether lignin is covalently linked to carbohydrates in native wood, forming what is referred to as lignin carbohydrate complexes (LCC), still lacks unequivocal proofs. This is mainly due to the need of isolating lignin from woody materials prior to analysis, at conditions leading to partial chemical modification of the native wood polymers. Thus, the correlation between the structure of the isolated LCC and LCC in situ remains open. As a way to circumvent the problematic isolation, biomimicking lignin polymerization in vivo and in vitro is an interesting option. Herein, we report the detection of lignin carbohydrate bonds in the extracellular lignin formed by tissue-cultured Norway spruce cells, and in modified biomimetic lignin synthesis (dehydrogenation polymers). Semi-quantitative 2D heteronuclear singular quantum coherence (HSQC)-, 31P - and 13C-NMR spectroscopies were applied as analytical tools. Combining results from these systems, four types of lignin carbohydrate bonds were detected; benzyl ether, benzyl ester, gamma-ester and phenyl glycoside linkages providing direct evidence of lignin carbohydrate bond formation in biomimicked lignin polymerization. Based on our findings, we propose a sequence for lignin carbohydrate bond formation in plant cell walls.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of experimental botany
The digestibility of plant biomass has a major influence on its value as a forage for livestock and as a feedstock for industrial biotechnology. For both processes, the concentration, structure and co...
In this work, the deconstruction mechanism of corn stover cell wall polymers during ball milling was evaluated. The characterization showed that ball milling not only brought about the dissociation of...
Whole valorization of carbohydrate and lignin of biomass is achieved by rapid flow-through fractionation (RFF) within 15 min. Wheat straw is effectively deconstructed into its principle components wit...
Isolation of earth abundant biopolymer, Lignin, from Dendrocalamus sinicus and their structural properties were investigated to achieve its large-scale practical applications in value-added products. ...
Synthesis of renewable acetic acid from CO2 and lignin was effectively achieved over an ionic liquid (e.g., [BMIm][Cl])-based catalytic system containing Ru-Rh bimetal catalyst (Ru3(CO)12 and RhI3) an...
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of added protein+leucine or caffeine to 1.2 g/kg/h CHO on the rate of post-exercise muscle glycogen re-synthesis in healthy, recre...
The present proposal is designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate and protein co-ingestion on muscle protein synthesis during endurance type exercise activities. We hypothesize that m...
Although research indicates foreign-born Mexican-Americans possess a healthy weight advantage relative to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans, patterns are less clear for children and may be chang...
The purpose of this study is to understand how the reduction in dietary carbohydrates in a very-low carbohydrate ketogenic diet impacts the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acid, and ketone...
10 young males will be recruited to participate in a randomized double blinded crossover study to investigate the influence of concomitant intake of two different types of carbohydrate wit...
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The exposure of protein to chemicals, or heat, which disrupt the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein, while leaving the peptide bonds intact.