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The comet assay is widely used in studies on genotoxicity testing, human biomonitoring and clinical studies. The simple version of the assay detects a mixture of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites; these lesions are typically described as DNA strand breaks to distinguish them from oxidatively damaged DNA that are measured with the enzyme-modified comet assay. This review assesses the association between high-prevalence diseases in high-income countries and DNA damage measured with the comet assay in humans. The majority of case-control studies have assessed genotoxicity in white blood cells. Patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes, kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Alzheimer's disease have on average 2-fold higher levels of DNA strand breaks compared with healthy controls. Patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes, kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in white blood cells than controls, although there is not a clear difference in DNA damage levels between the different diseases. Case-control studies have shown elevated levels of DNA strand breaks in patients with breast cancer, whereas there are only few studies on colorectal and lung cancers. At present, it is not possible to assess if these neoplastic diseases are associated with a different level of DNA damage compared with non-neoplastic diseases.
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This work evaluated the photoprotective and antigenotoxic effects against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation of flavonoid compounds apigenin, naringenin and pinocembrin. The photoprotective efficacy of the...
To understand the prevalence and disease burden of major chronic diseases in the elderly in China and provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of chronic diseases and for the rational a...
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a rapidly developing high-income country that has experienced significant population growth, urbanisation, and improvements in the standard of living since formation ...
Today there are numerous different molecular diagnostic assays for detection of tuberculosis (TB) allowing optimization of rapid detection of TB according to the clinical need. In this study, two high...
We conducted a cross-sectional study among school/college students in Tanzania and Uganda to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and associated factors. Participants were classified t...
Patients with cancer often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This can be due to stress, depression, anxiety, or physical problems caused by cancer or the treatments use...
Cisplatin-based chemoradiation (CCRT) has been considered as the standard care for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Nevertheless, increasingly more radio-resistant tu...
Head injuries are a major public health issue, with an estimated annual incidence in Europe of 262 per 100,000 population. Light head injury (SCI), defined by a Glasgow score between 13 an...
The Comet-program is a Swedish parent training program developed to target externalizing behaviors in children between 3-11 years. The program is normally delivered in group format in prim...
Aim is to undertake a screening study that identifies undiagnosed patients with LSDs and determine the prevalence of these diseases with special focus on underrepresented minority groups.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...