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Psychoactive substances of the 2C-series are phenethylamine-based designer drugs that can induce psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects. The so-called 2C-FLY series contains rigidified methoxy groups integrated in a 2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran core. The aim of the presented work was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro metabolic fate including isoenzyme activities and toxicological detectability of the three new psychoactive substances (NPS) 2C-E-FLY, 2C-EF-FLY, and 2C-T-7-FLY to allow clinical and forensic toxicologists the identification of these novel compounds. Rat urine, after oral administration, and pooled human liver S9 fraction (pS9) incubations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). By performing activity screenings, the human isoenzymes involved were identified and toxicological detectability in rat urine investigated using standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) based on gas chromatography (GC)-MS, LC-MS , and LC-HRMS/MS. In total, 32 metabolites were tentatively identified. Main metabolic steps consisted of hydroxylation and N-acetylation. Phase I metabolic reactions were catalyzed by CYP2D6, 3A4, and FMO3 and N-acetylation by NAT1 and 2. Methoxyamine was used as a trapping agent for detection of the deaminated metabolite formed by MAO-A and B. Interindividual differences in the metabolism of the 2C-FLY drugs could be caused by polymorphisms of enzymes involved or drug-drug interactions. All three SUSAs were shown to be suitable to detect an intake of these NPS but common metabolites of 2C-E-FLY and 2C-EF-FLY have to be considered during interpretation of analytical findings.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug testing and analysis
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A derivative of phenethylamine containing two substituent methoxy groups in the phenyl ring.
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