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Redox-active, strongly magnetic, combustion and friction-derived nanoparticles (CFDNPs) are abundant in particulate matter air pollution. Urban children and young adults with Alzheimer disease Continuum have higher numbers of brain CFDNPs versus clean air controls. CFDNPs surface charge, dynamic magnetic susceptibility, iron content and redox activity contribute to ROS generation, neurovascular unit (NVU), mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) damage, and are catalysts for protein misfolding, aggregation and fibrillation. CFDNPs respond to external magnetic fields and are involved in cell damage by agglomeration/clustering, magnetic rotation and/or hyperthermia. This review focus in the interaction of CFDNPs, nanomedicine and industrial NPs with biological systems and the impact of portals of entry, particle sizes, surface charge, biomolecular corona, biodistribution, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular toxicity, anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, brain dysfunction and pathology. NPs toxicity information come from researchers synthetizing particles and improving their performance for drug delivery, drug targeting, magnetic resonance imaging and heat mediators for cancer therapy. Critical information includes how these NPs overcome all barriers, the NPs protein corona changes as they cross the NVU and the complexity of NPs interaction with soluble proteins and key organelles. Oxidative, ER and mitochondrial stress, and a faulty complex protein quality control are at the core of Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases and NPs mechanisms of action and toxicity are strong candidates for early development and progression of both fatal diseases. Nanoparticle exposure regardless of sources carries a high risk for the developing brain homeostasis and ought to be included in the AD and PD research framework.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental research
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Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A layer of protein coating adsorbed by NANOPARTICLES upon entry into PLASMA or other protein-containing biological fluids, which affects how nanoparticles are internalized by cells and cleared from the body.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
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