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Due to the limitations of current extraction methods, extracellular DNA (eDNA) is rarely discerned from intracellular DNA (iDNA) despite having unique contributions to antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) propagation. Furthermore, eDNA may be free (f-eDNA) or adsorbed to or suspended solids, including cells (a-eDNA), which affects ARG persistence and transmissivity. We developed a novel method using magnetic beads to separate iDNA, a-eDNA, and f-eDNA to assess how these physical states of ARGs change across a wastewater treatment plant. This method efficiently extracted eDNA (>85.3%) with higher recovery than current methods such as alcohol precipitation, CTAB-based extraction, and DNA extraction kits (<10%). Biological treatment and UV disinfection decreased the concentration of intracellular ARGs (iARGs) and adsorbed extracellular ARGs (a-eARGs), causing an increase of released free extracellular ARGs (f-eARGs). More ARGs were discharged through the wasted biosolids than in the effluent; iARGs and a-eARGs are prevalent in wasted biosolids ((73.9 ± 22.5) % and (23.4 ± 15.3) % of total ARGs respectively), while f-eARGs were prevalent in the effluent ((90.3 ± 16.5) %). Bacterial community analysis showed significant correlations between specific genera and ARGs (e.g., Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were strongly correlated with multidrug-resistance gene bla). This treatment system decreased the discharge of iARGs to receiving environments, however, increased eARG concentrations were present in the effluent, which may contribute to the environmental resistome.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environment international
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N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic VANCOMYCIN. The enterococci become resistant by acquiring plasmids carrying genes for VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...