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Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been identified as a potential green technology to treat food and municipal waste, agricultural residues, including farmyard manure and slurry (FYM&S), to produce biogas. FYM&S and digestate can act as soil conditioners and provide valuable nutrients to plants; however, it may also contain harmful pathogens. This study looks at the critical indicators in determining the microbial inactivation potential of AD and the possible implications for human and environmental health of spreading the resulting digestate on agricultural land. In addition, available strategies for risk assessment in the context of EU and Irish legislation are assessed. Storage time and process parameters (including temperature, pH, organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time), feedstock recipe (carbon-nitrogen ratio) to the AD plant (both mesophilic and thermophilic) were all assessed to significantly influence pathogen inactivation. However, complete inactivation of all pathogens is unlikely. There are limited studies evaluating risks from FYM&S as a feedstock in AD and the spreading of resulting digestate. The lack of process standardisation and varying feedstocks between AD farms means risk must be evaluated on a case by case basis and calls for a more unified risk assessment methodology. In addition, there is a need for the enhancement of AD farm-based modelling techniques and datasets to help in advancing knowledge in this area.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...