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The Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an aquatic pathogen which causes furunculosis to salmonids, especially in fish farms. The emergence of strains of this bacterium exhibiting antibiotic resistance is increasing, limiting the effectiveness of antibiotherapy as a treatment against this worldwide disease. In the present study, we discovered an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida that harbors two novel plasmids variants carrying antibiotic resistance genes. The use of long-read sequencing (PacBio) allowed us to fully characterize those variants, named pAsa5-3432 and pRAS3-3432, which both differ from their classic counterpart through their content in mobile genetic elements. The plasmid pAsa5-3432 carries a new multidrug region composed of multiple mobile genetic elements, including a Class 1 integron similar to an integrated element of Salmonella enterica. With this new region, probably acquired through plasmid recombination, pAsa5-3432 is the first reported plasmid of this bacterium that bears both an essential virulence factor (the type three secretion system) and multiple antibiotic resistance genes. As for pRAS3-3432, compared to the classic pRAS3, it carries a new mobile element that has only been identified in Chlamydia suis. Hence, with the identification of those two novel plasmids harboring mobile genetic elements that are normally encountered in other bacterial species, the present study puts emphasis on the important impact of mobile genetic elements in the genomic plasticity of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and suggests that this aquatic bacterium could be an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes that can be exchanged with other bacteria, including human and animal pathogens.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen of a wide range of freshwater and marine fish species. A. salmonicida is the causative agent of furuncul...
A recently described typing system based on sequence variation in the virulence array protein (vapA) gene, encoding the A-layer surface protein array, allows unambiguous subtyping of Aeromonas salmoni...
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A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO. Aliivibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold water vibriosis, a HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA of ATLANTIC SALMON.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.
A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, the causative agent of cold water vibriosis, a HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA of ATLANTIC SALMON.
The type species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER. Previously in the genus ALCALIGENES, the classification and nomenclature of this species has been frequently emended. The two subspecies, Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans are associated with infections.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a family of bacteria with resistance to one or more major antibiotics. There are currently 17 different strains of MRSA. Two particular strains, EMRSA15 and EMRSA16 account for 96% of MRSA blood...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...