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The aim of this study was to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of prolactin (PRL) in testicular development of prepubertal cockerels. In an in vivo animal experiment, active immunization against PRL severely depressed prepubertal testicular development by significantly reducing testicular weights at both 122 and 164 d of age. The number of elongated spermatids in the seminiferous tubules was also significantly decreased by immunization with 199-residue chicken PRL (cPRL) at age 122 d. Inhibition of testicular development by cPRL immunization was associated with decreases in LH receptor (LHR), FSH receptor (FSHR), Stat5b, P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) mRNA expression levels in testicular tissue. In in vitro experiments, testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells isolated from prepubertal cockerel testes was dose-dependently enhanced by treatment with bioactive recombinant PRL, but a lesser response was seen with high concentrations of PRL. The distinct changes in testosterone production in response to high and low concentrations of added PRL were paralleled by similar patterns of change in the mRNA levels of Stat5b, LHR, P450scc, StAR, 3β-HSD, and CYP17A1 in cultured Leydig cells, as well as protein amounts of phosphorylated Jak2 and Stat5a/b. In conclusion, low to medium doses of PRL potentiate testis development in prepubertal cockerels by enhancing testosterone secretion from Leydig cells via activation of PRLR/Stat5b signal transduction, which upregulates mRNA expression of LHR and testosterone synthesizing enzymes. However, this positive regulation was weaker in response to a high dose of PRL, which reduced PRLR/Stat5b signal transduction and the expression of genes involved in LH signaling and testosterone synthesis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Domestic animal endocrinology
Objectives To evaluate the effect of raloxifene on prolactin levels in addition to dopamine agonist (DA) therapy in patients with prolactinoma. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of 14 ...
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to BPA on testicular development in offspring males. Pregnant Kunming mice were randomly divided into 7 groups with 20 mice in ...
SRY-negative 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD) are very rare conditions. Recently, we identified a novel heterozygous NR5A1 mutation, p.Arg92Trp (c.274C>T, p.R92W), in 2 unrelated ca...
In a variety of organisms, adult gonads contain several specialized somatic cells that regulate and support the development of germline cells. In stony corals, the characteristics and functions of gon...
Many molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the physiological functions of cells or control the development of an animal are well conserved between vertebrates and insects [...].
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The purpose of the study is to assess the safety and determine the effects of the hormone prolactin on lactation (breast milk production).
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation. The immune system disruption that leads to overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytok...
Introduction: The aim of this clinical trial is to investigate and compare the effect of piezoelectric surgery on tissue, cellular and molecular level of oral surgical wound healing and ...
The purpose of this study is to show that amantadine might help to reduce the side effect of the medications which are prescribed to treat schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. High l...
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...