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Twenty-six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and four synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) accumulated by Masson pine needles from different areas of Shanghai were investigated in the present study. Concentrations of ΣPAHs (sum of 26 PAHs) ranged from 234 × 10 to 5370 × 10 mg kg. Levels of ΣPAHs in different sampling areas followed the order: urban areas (Puxi and Pudong) > suburbs > Chongming. Total concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs ranged from 225 × 10 to 5180 × 10 mg kg, ranking at a relatively high level compared to other regions around the world. Factor analysis and multi-linear regression model has identified six sources of PAHs with relative contributions of 15.1% for F1 (vehicle emissions), 47.8% for F2 (natural gas and biomass combustion), 7.8% for F3 (oil), 10.6% for F4 (coal combustion), 15.7% for F5 ("anthracene" source) and 3.0% for F6 (coke tar). Total concentrations of 4 SMCs varied between 0.071 × 10 and 2.72 × 10 mg kg in pine needles from Shanghai. SMCs with the highest detected frequency were Galaxolide and musk xylene, followed by musk ketone and Tonalide. The highest level of SMCs was found near industrial park and daily chemical plant. The results obtained from this study may have important reference value for local government in the control of atmospheric organic pollution.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Aromatic hydrocarbons that contain extended fused-ring structures.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS composed of three fused BENZENE rings.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.