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Vision-based tracking in an important component for building computer assisted interventions in minimally invasive surgery as it facilitates estimation of motion for instruments and anatomical targets. Tracking-by-detection algorithms are widely used for visual tracking, where the problem is treated as a classification task and a tracking target appearance model is updated over time using online learning. In challenging conditions, like surgical scenes, where tracking targets deform and vary in scale, the update step is prone to include background information in model appearance or to lack the ability to estimate change of scale, which degrades the performance of classifier. In this paper, we propose a Patch-based Adaptive Weighting with Segmentation and Scale (PAWSS) tracking framework that tackles both scale and background problems. A simple but effective colour-based segmentation model is used to suppress background information and multi-scale samples are extracted to enrich the training pool, which allows the tracker to handle both incremental and abrupt scale variations between frames. Experimentally, we evaluate our approach on Online Tracking Benchmark (OTB) dataset and Visual Object Tracking (VOT) challenge datasets, showing that our approach outperforms recent state-of-the-art trackers, and it especially improves successful rate score on OTB dataset, while on VOT datasets, PAWSS ranks among the top trackers while operating at real-time frame rates. Focusing on the application of PAWSS to surgical scenes, we evaluate on MICCAI 2015 challenge instrument tracking challenge and in vivo datasets, showing that our approach performs the best among all submitted methods and also has promising performance on in vivo surgical instrument tracking.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical image analysis
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