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The role of water in protein function and aggregation is highly important and may hold some answers to understanding initiation of misfolding diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's where soluble intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) aggregate into fibrillar structures. IDPs are highly dynamic and have larger solvent exposed areas compared to globular proteins, meaning they make and break hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water more frequently. The mobility of water can be altered by presence of ions, sugars, osmolytes, proteins and membranes which differ in different cell types, cell compartments and also as cells age. A reduction in water mobility and thus protein mobility enhances the probability that IDPs can associate to form intermolecular bonds and propagate into aggregates. This poses an interesting question as to whether localised water mobility inside cells can influence the propensity of an IDP to aggregate and furthermore whether it can influence fibril polymorphism and disease outcome.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in structural biology
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A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
A precursor to the AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN (beta/A4). Alterations in the expression of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (ABPP) gene, located on chromosome 21, plays a role in the development of the neuropathology common to both ALZHEIMER DISEASE and DOWN SYNDROME. ABPP is associated with the extensive extracellular matrix secreted by neuronal cells. Upon cleavage, this precursor produces three proteins of varying amino acid lengths: 695, 751, and 770. The beta/A4 (695 amino acids) or beta-amyloid protein is the principal component of the extracellular amyloid in senile plaques found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DOWN SYNDROME and, to a limited extent, in normal aging.
Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
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