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Training-induced white matter microstructure changes in survivors of neonatal critical illness: A randomized controlled trial.

08:00 EDT 27th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Training-induced white matter microstructure changes in survivors of neonatal critical illness: A randomized controlled trial."

In a nationwide randomized controlled trial, white matter microstructure was assessed before and immediately after Cogmed Working-Memory Training (CWMT) in school-age neonatal critical illness survivors. Eligible participants were survivors (8-12 years) with an IQ ≥ 80 and a z-score of ≤ -1.5 on (working)memory test at first assessment. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to assess white matter microstructure. Associations between any training-induced changes and improved neuropsychological outcome immediately and one year post-CWMT were evaluated as well. The trial was conducted between October 2014-June 2017 at Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Researchers involved were blinded to group allocation. Participants were randomized to CWMT(n = 14) or no-intervention(n = 20). All children completed the CWMT. Global fractional anisotropy(FA) increased significantly post-CWMT compared to no-intervention(estimated-coefficient = .007, p = .015). Increased FA(estimated coefficient = .009, p = .033) and decreased mean diffusivity(estimated-coefficient = -.010, p = .018) were found in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus(SFL) post-CWMT compared no-intervention. Children after CWMT who improved with >1SD on verbal working-memory had significantly higher FA in the left SLF post-CWMT(n = 6; improvement = .408 ± .01) than children without this improvement post-CWMT(n = 6; no-improvement = .384 ± .02), F(1,12) = 6.22, p = .041, η = .47. No other structure-function relationships were found post-CWMT. Our findings demonstrate that white matter microstructure and associated cognitive outcomes are malleable by CWMT in survivors of neonatal critical illness.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Developmental cognitive neuroscience
ISSN: 1878-9307
Pages: 100678

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