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Mancozeb (MZ), chlorothalonil (CT), and thiophanate methyl (TM) are pesticides commonly used in agriculture due to their efficacy, low acute toxicity to mammals, and short environmental persistence. Although the toxic effects of these pesticides have been previously reported, studies regarding their influence on the immune system are limited. As such, this study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of MZ, CT, and TM pesticides on macrophage cells. RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.1-100 μg/mL) of these pesticides. CT exposure promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. The MTT and ds-DNA assay results demonstrated that MZ, CT, and TM exposure induced macrophage proliferation. Moreover, MZ, CT, and TM promoted cell cycle arrest at S phase, strongly suggesting macrophage proliferation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) and caspases (caspase 1, 3, and 8) in macrophages exposed to MZ, CT, and TM pesticides increased, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels decreased. These results suggest that MZ, CT, and TM exert an immunomodulatory effect on the immune system, inducing macrophage activation and enhancing the inflammatory response.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
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