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The neutrophil oxidative respiratory burst response is a key component of the innate immune system responsible for killing microbial pathogens. Since fish rely on the innate immune system for health, monitoring the respiratory burst activity may be an effective means of gauging fish health status. Here we report that the respiratory burst of Asian seabass neutrophils can be measured in whole blood by the dihydrorhodamine (DHR)-123 reduction assay and flow cytometry. Neutrophils responded to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in a concentration dependent manner with significant respiratory burst activity at 100-1000 nM. Other known neutrophil agonists, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor, the tripeptide f-met-leu-phe and zymosan, did not induce a significant DHR reduction. Thus, the findings enable us to propose that the DHR-123 flow cytometry whole blood assay, incorporating PMA as a stimulator, would not only facilitate future studies into fish blood neutrophil research but provides a simple, rapid and reliable assay for gauging fish natural immunity status and health.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
In aquaculture, there is high interest in substituting marine-derived with vegetable-based ingredients as energy source. Farmed carnivorous fish under high carbohydrate diets tend to increase adiposit...
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206578.].
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The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).
Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
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An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...