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Somatic mutations within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (MT-COI) are frequent in various cancer types. In addition, perturbation from orchestrated expression of mitochondrial DNA encoded genes is also associated with complex disorders, including cancer. Since codon bias and the mitochondrial translation system restricts functional characterization of over-expressed wild type or mutant mitochondrial DNA encoded genes, the codon optimization and artificial synthesis of entire MT-CO1 allowed us to over-express the wild type and one of its deleterious mutants into the mitochondria of the transfected cells. Ectopically expressed MT-CO1 was observed to efficiently expressed and localized to mitochondria but showed high level of aggregation under denaturing condition upon heating. Over-expression of wild type or mutant variant of MT-CO1 promoted anchorage dependent and independent proliferation potential in in-vitro experiments and introduced the cancer cell metabolic phenotype of high glucose uptake and lactate release. Reactive oxygen species generated in cells over-expressing MT-CO1 variants acted as key effectors mediating differential expression of apoptosis and DNA damage pathway related genes. High ROS generated also down-regulated the expression of global regulators of gene expression, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. The down-regulated expression of DNMTs co-related with differential methylation of the CpG islands in the promoter region of a select set of studied genes, in a manner to promote pro-cancerous phenotype. Apart from assigning the mechanistic role to the MT-CO1 variants and their perturbed expression in cancer development, the present study provides novel insights into the functional role of somatic mutations within MT-CO1 promoting cancer phenotype.
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An NADPH oxidase that functions as a voltage-gated proton channel expressed by PHAGOCYTES, especially in the colon. It regulates intracellular pH, generates SUPEROXIDES upon activation by PHAGOCYTOSIS, and may play a role in INNATE IMMUNITY.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
An NADPH oxidase that is strongly expressed in the kidney. It forms a complex with CYBA-P22PHOX and produces intracellular SUPEROXIDES that may regulate cellular signaling in APOPTOSIS; BONE RESORPTION; and NF-KAPPA B activation.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It is found abundantly expressed in the neuronal tissue and may be associated with hippocampal function.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
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