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Various specific early rehabilitation strategies are proposed to decrease functional disabilities in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). These strategies are thought to favour the mechanisms of brain plasticity that take place after brain injury. However, the level of evidence is low. Markers of brain plasticity would favour validation of these rehabilitation programs. In this paper, we consider the study of mu rhythm for this goal by describing the characteristics of mu rhythm in adults and children with typical development, then review the current literature on mu rhythm in CP. Mu rhythm is composed of brain oscillations recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) over the sensorimotor areas. The oscillations are characterized by their frequency, topography and modulation. Frequency ranges within the alpha band (˜10 Hz, mu alpha) or beta band (˜20 Hz, mu beta). Source location analyses suggest that mu alpha reflects somatosensory functions, whereas mu beta reflects motor functions. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) followed by event-related (re-)synchronisation (ERS) of mu rhythm occur in association with a movement or somatosensory input. Even if the functional role of the different mu rhythm components remains incompletely understood, their maturational trajectory is well described. Increasing age from infancy to adolescence is associated with increasing ERD as well as increasing ERS. A few studies characterised mu rhythm in adolescents with spastic CP and showed atypical patterns of modulation in most of them. The most frequent findings in patients with unilateral CP are decreased ERD and decreased ERS over the central electrodes, but atypical topography may also be found. The patterns of modulations are more variable in bilateral CP. Data in infants and young children with CP are lacking and studies did not address the questions of intra-individual reliability of mu rhythm modulations in patients with CP nor their modification after motor learning. Better characterization of mu rhythm in CP, especially in infants and young children, is warranted before considering this rhythm as a potential neurophysiological marker of brain plasticity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine
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A cardiac arrhythmia that is caused by interaction of two independently initiated cardiac impulses of different rates from two separate foci. Generally one focus is the SINOATRIAL NODE, the normal pacemaker. The ectopic focus is usually in the HEART VENTRICLE but can be in the HEART ATRIUM or the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. Modulation of the parasystolic rhythm by the sinus rhythm depends on the completeness of entrance block surrounding the parasystolic focus.
A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p914; Dev Neurosci 1991;13(4-5):267-73)
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
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