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Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) has emerged as a valuable tool to map complex brain-wide functional networks, predict cognitive performance and identify biomarkers for neurological diseases. However, interpreting these findings poses challenges, as the neural basis of rsfMRI connectivity remains poorly understood. The thalamus serves as a relay station and modulates diverse long-range cortical functional integrations, yet few studies directly interrogate its role in brain-wide rsfMRI connectivity. Utilizing a multi-modal approach of rsfMRI, optogenetic stimulation and multi-depth cortical electrophysiology recording, we examined whether and how the somatosensory thalamus contributes to cortical interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity. We found that low frequency (1 Hz) optogenetic stimulation of somatosensory-specific ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamocortical excitatory neurons increased the interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity in all examined sensory cortices, somatosensory, visual and auditory, and the local intrahemispheric BOLD activity at infraslow frequency (0.01-0.1 Hz). In parallel, multi-depth local field potential recordings at bilateral primary somatosensory cortices revealed increased interhemispheric correlations of low frequency neural oscillations (i.e., mainly < 10 Hz) at all cortical layers. Meanwhile, pharmacologically inhibiting VPM thalamocortical neurons decreased interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity and local intrahemispheric infraslow BOLD activity in all sensory cortices. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that low frequency activities in the thalamo-cortical network contribute to brain-wide rsfMRI connectivity, highlighting the thalamus as a pivotal region that underlies rsfMRI connectivity.
This article was published in the following journal.
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The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
Cortical malformations secondary to abnormal cortical maturation after CELL MIGRATION in NEUROGENESIS. This group includes injury to the cortex during later stages of cortical development such as POLYMICROGYRIA and focal cortical dysplasias.
The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
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Hearing, auditory perception, or audition is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear. Sound may be heard through solid, liquid, or gaseous mat...