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Remyelination is common under physiological conditions and usually occurs as a response to a pathological demyelinating event. Its potentiation is an important goal for the development of therapies against pathologies such as multiple sclerosis and white matter injury. Visualization and quantification in vivo of demyelination and remyelination processes are essential for longitudinal studies that will allow the testing and development of pro-myelinating strategies. In this study, ethidium bromide (EB) was stereotaxically injected into the caudal cerebellar peduncle (c.c.p.) in rats to produce demyelination; the resulting lesion was characterized (i) transversally through histology using Black-Gold II (BGII) staining, and (ii) longitudinally through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), by computing fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity parameters to detect microstructural changes. Using this characterization, we evaluated, in the lesioned c.c.p., the effect of N-butyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (β-CCB), a potentiator of GABAergic signaling in oligodendrocytes. The dMRI analysis revealed significant changes in the anisotropic and diffusivity properties of the c.c.p. A decreased FA and increased radial diffusivity (λ) were evident following c.c.p. lesioning. These changes correlated strongly with an apparent decrease in myelin content as evidenced by BGII. Daily systemic β-CCB administration for 2 weeks in lesioned animals increased FA and decreased λ, suggesting an improvement in myelination, which was supported by histological analysis. This study shows that structural changes in the demyelination-remyelination of the caudal cerebellar peduncle (DRCCP) model can be monitored longitudinally by MRI, and it suggests that remyelination is enhanced by β-CCB treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:
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Remyelination is an endogenous process by which functional recovery of damaged neurons is achieved by reinstating the myelin sheath around axons. Remyelination has been documented in multiple sclerosi...
Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disabilities in young adults. Over the past decade, several therapeutic strategies have emerged as having potential neuroprotective a...
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced demyelination were combined to study remyelination in a pro-inflammatory context. Two groups of female C57BL/6...
Nashef et al. (2019) show that high-frequency stimulation of the superior cerebellar peduncle produces a temporary cerebellar deficit. While the deficit is present, motor cortex neurons that receive ...
The atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, is used to treat a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease and readily crosses the blood brain barrier to interac...
The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effects of Rebif® 44 mcg subcutaneous (sc) three times a week (tiw) on a) remyelination/demyelination, b) lesion and brain volume, c) central ...
Cerebellar ataxias are a group of disorders caused by cerebellar affections, for which currently no specific treatment is available. Some limited studies verified the effects of cerebellar...
The development of in vivo biomarkers sensitive to myelin disruption represents a major clinical need to be able to monitor the demyelination processes as well as the effect of remyelinati...
Oncolytic adenovirus for pediatric naive DIPG, to be infused after tumor biopsy through the same trajectory in the cerebellar peduncle.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but the underlying neural mechanis...
WHITE MATTER consisting of a large bundle of paired fibers originating in the pontine nuclei in the pre pontis and the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis projecting to the contralateral cerebral cortex.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Bundle of MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS that connects the two CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES in the LAMINA TERMINALIS. It is located ventral to the SEPTAL NUCLEI, and caudal to the median PREOPTIC NUCLEUS.
A subregion of the CEREBELLAR CORTEX, located along the midsagittal plane of the CEREBELLUM.
The reforming of the MYELIN SHEATH around AXONS following loss due to injury or DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...