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Co-jet-milling drugs and lubricants may enable simultaneous particle size reduction and surface coating to achieve satisfactory aerosolization performance. This study aims to establish the relationship between surface lubricant coverage and aerosolization behavior of a model drug (ciprofloxacin HCl) co-jet-milled with lubricants [magnesium stearate (MgSt) or L-leucine]. The co-jet-milled formulations were characterized for their particle size, morphology, cohesion, Carr's index, and aerosolization performance. The surface lubricant coating was assessed by probing surface chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The effects of co-jet-milling on the surface energy and in vitro dissolution of ciprofloxacin were also evaluated. Our results indicated that, in general, ciprofloxacin co-jet-milled with L-leucine at > 0.5% w/w showed a significant higher fine particle fraction (FPF) compared with the ciprofloxacin jet-milled alone. The FPF values plateau at or above 5 % w/w for both MgSt and L-leucine. We have established the quantitative correlations between surface lubricant coverage and aerosolization in the tested range for each of the lubricants. More importantly, our results suggest different mechanisms to improve aerosolization for MgSt-coating and L-leucine-coating, respectively: MgSt-coating reduces inter-particulate interactions through the formation of low surface energy coating films, while L-leucine-coating not only reduces the surface energy but also creates rough particle surfaces that reduce inter-particulate contact area. Furthermore, surface coatings with 5% w/w MgSt (which is hydrophobic) did not lead to substantial changes in in vitro dissolution. Our findings have shown that the coating structure/quality and their effects could be highly dependent on the process and the coating material. The findings from this mechanistic study provide fundamental understanding of the critical effects of MgSt and L-leucine surface coverages on aerosolization and powder flow properties of inhalation particles.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutics
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