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Alterations in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are hallmarks of cancer. Incorrect repair of DNA lesions often leads to genomic instability. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a core component of the DNA repair system, is activated to enhance the homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway upon DNA double-strand breaks. Although ATM signaling has been widely studied in different types of cancer, its research is still lacking compared with other DDR-involved molecules such as PARP and ATR. There is still a vast research opportunity for the development of ATM inhibitors as anticancer agents. Here, we focus on the recent findings of ATM signaling in DNA repair of cancer. Previous studies have identified several partners of ATM, some of which promote ATM signaling, while others have the opposite effect. ATM inhibitors, including KU-55933, KU-60019, KU-59403, CP-466722, AZ31, AZ32, AZD0156, and AZD1390, have been evaluated for their antitumor effects. It has been revealed that ATM inhibition increases a cancer cell's sensitivity to radiotherapy. Moreover, the combination with PARP or ATR inhibitors has synergistic lethality in some cancers. Of note, among these ATM inhibitors, AZD0156 and AZD1390 achieve potent and highly selective ATM kinase inhibition and have an excellent ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Currently, AZD0156 and AZD1390 are under investigation in phase I clinical trials. Taken together, targeting ATM may be a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Hence, further development of ATM inhibitors is urgently needed in cancer research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacology & therapeutics
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The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 184.108.40.206.
The repair of DOUBLE-STRAND DNA BREAKS by rejoining the broken ends of DNA to each other directly.
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