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Dopamine (DA) and DA receptors (DR) have been extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS), but their role in the periphery is still poorly understood. Here we summarize data on DA and DRs in the eye, cardiovascular system and endocrine pancreas, three districts where DA and DA-related drugs have been studied and the expression of DR documented. In the eye, DA modulates ciliary blood flow and aqueous production, which impacts on intraocular pressure and glaucoma. In the cardiovascular system, DA increases blood pressure and heart activity, mostly through a stimulation of adrenoceptors, and induces vasodilatation in the renal circulation, possibly through D1R stimulation. In pancreatic islets, beta cells store DA and co-release it with insulin. D1R is mainly expressed in beta cells, where it stimulates insulin release, while D2R is expressed in both beta and delta cells (in the latter at higher level), where it inhibits, respectively, insulin and somatostatin release. The formation of D2R-somatostatin receptor 5 heteromers (documented in the CNS), might add complexity to the system. DA may exert both direct autocrine effects on beta cells, and indirect paracrine effects through delta cells and somatostatin. Bromocriptine, an FDA approved drug for diabetes, endowed with both D1R (antagonistic) and D2R (agonistic) actions, may exert complex effects, resulting from the integration of direct effects on beta cells and paracrine effects from delta cells. A full comprehension of peripheral DA signaling deserves further studies that may generate innovative therapeutic drugs to manage conditions such as glaucoma, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacology & therapeutics
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One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...
Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas caused by the release of activated pancreatic enzymes. Common triggers are biliary tract disease and chronic heavy alcohol intake. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation...