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The epidemic of loperamide abuse and misuse in the patients for the alternative to opioids has become an increasing worldwide concern and has led to considerations about the potential for drug-drug interactions between loperamide and other combined drugs, especially inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, such as axitinib. This study assessed the effects of axitinib on the metabolism of loperamide and its main metabolite N-demethylated loperamide in rats and in rat liver microsomes (RLM), human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human CYP3A4*1. The concentrations of both compounds were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The exposures (AUC, AUC and C) of loperamide and N-demethylated loperamide showed a conspicuous increase when loperamide was co-administered with axitinib. The T of loperamide increased while CLz/F decreased under the influence of axitinib. In vitro, axitinib inhibited loperamide metabolism with the IC of 18.34 μM for RLM, 1.705 μM for HLM and 1.604 μM for CYP3A4*1, and it was confirmed as a non-competitive inhibitor in all enzymes. Taken together, the results indicated that axitinib had an obvious inhibitory impact on loperamide metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, more attention should be paid to the concurrent use of loperamide and axitinib to reduce the risk of unexpected clinical outcomes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemico-biological interactions
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