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Macrophages play key roles during cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their related complications. Apelin (APLN) is a key molecule, whose roles during CVD have been documented previously. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that APLN may perform its roles via modulation of macrophages. Additionally, due to the widespread distribution of the CVD, more effective therapeutic strategies need to be developed to overcome the related complications. This review article collected recent information regarding the roles of APLN on the macrophages and discusses its potential chance to be a target for molecular/cellular therapy of APLN and the APLN treated macrophages for CVD.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Life sciences
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Quantification of macrophage infiltration and characterization of macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue of 60 obese subjects and 20 non obese subjects
A beta-arrestin that functions in the down-regulation of signaling by G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. It is also a major regulator of INSULIN signaling via the ERK 1-2 PATHWAY, and many other signaling processes, especially in NEURONS and LEUKOCYTES.
A suppressor of cytokine signaling protein that consists of an N-terminal kinase-inhibitory region, a central SH2 DOMAIN, a characteristic C-terminal SOCS box (a 40-amino acid motif, which functions to recruit E3 UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE COMPLEXES). SOCS1 functions as a negative regulator of CYTOKINES that signal through the JANUS KINASES-STAT 3 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (JAK/STAT3) pathway by inhibiting the activity of JANUS KINASES.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
A DNA binding protein, transcriptional regulator, and proto-oncogene protein that contains 10 CYS2-HIS2 ZINC FINGERS. It functions as a positive or negative regulator of expression for target genes involved in organism development.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...