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Progressive neuroanatomical changes caused by Grin1 loss-of-function mutation.

08:00 EDT 9th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Progressive neuroanatomical changes caused by Grin1 loss-of-function mutation."

NMDA receptor dysfunction is central to the encephalopathies caused by missense mutations in the NMDA receptor subunit genes. Missense variants of GRIN1, GRIN2A, and GRIN2B cause similar syndromes with varying severity of intellectual impairment, autism, epilepsy, and motor dysfunction. To gain insight into possible biomarkers of NMDAR hypofunction, we asked whether a loss-of-function variant in the Grin1 gene would cause structural changes in the brain that could be detected by MRI. We also studied the developmental trajectory of these changes to determine whether structural changes coincided with reported cognitive impairments in the mice. We performed magnetic resonance imaging in male Grin1-/- knockdown mice (GluN1KD) that were three, six, or twelve weeks old. Deformation-based morphometry was used to assess neuroanatomical differences. Volumetric reductions were detected in substantia nigra and striatum of GluN1KD mice at all ages. Changes in limbic structures were only evident at six weeks of age. Reductions in white matter volumes were first evident at three weeks, and additional deficits were detected at six and twelve weeks. FluoroJade immunofluorescence revealed degenerating neurons in twelve-week old GluN1KD mice. We conclude that Grin1 loss-of-function mutations cause volume reductions in dopaminergic structures early in development, while changes to limbic and white matter structures are delayed and are more pronounced in post-adolescent ages. The evidence of degenerating neurons in the mature brain indicates an ongoing process of cell loss as a consequence of NMDAR hypofunction.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neurobiology of disease
ISSN: 1095-953X
Pages: 104527

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A mutation that causes a decrease in or elimination of a gene product's activity.

A copy number variation that results in reduced GENE DOSAGE due to any loss-of-function mutation. The loss of heterozygosity is associated with abnormal phenotypes or diseased states because the remaining gene is insufficient.

A disease that results from a congenital defect in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV. Defects in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

A mutation that results in an increase in a gene's activity or in acquiring a new molecular function or a new pattern of gene expression.

Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.

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