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Striated myocytes compose about half of the cells of the heart, while contributing the majority of the heart's mass and volume. In response to increased demands for pumping power, including in diseases of pressure and volume overload, the contractile myocytes undergo non-mitotic growth, resulting in increased heart mass, i.e. cardiac hypertrophy. Myocyte hypertrophy is induced by a change in the gene expression program driven by the altered activity of transcription factors and co-repressor and co-activator chromatin-associated proteins. These gene regulatory proteins are subject to diverse post-translational modifications and serve as nuclear effectors for intracellular signal transduction pathways, including those controlled by cyclic nucleotides and calcium ion. Scaffold proteins contribute to the underlying architecture of intracellular signaling networks by targeting signaling enzymes to discrete intracellular compartments, providing specificity to the regulation of downstream effectors, including those regulating gene expression. Muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β (mAKAPβ) is a well-characterized scaffold protein that contributes to the regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms how this prototypical scaffold protein organizes signalosomes responsible for the regulation of class IIa histone deacetylases and cardiac transcription factors such as NFAT, MEF2, and HIF-1α, as well as how this signalosome represents a novel therapeutic target for the prevention or treatment of heart failure.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cellular signalling
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A forkhead box transcription factor that is a major target of INSULIN signaling and regulator of metabolic homeostasis in response to OXIDATIVE STRESS. It binds to the insulin RESPONSE ELEMENT (IRE) and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE). Its activity is suppressed by insulin and it also regulates OSTEOBLAST proliferation, controls bone mass, and skeletal regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism. It promotes GLUCONEOGENESIS in HEPATOCYTES and regulates gene expression in ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is also an important CELL DEATH regulator. Chromosomal aberrations involving the FOXO1 gene occur in RHABDOMYOSARCOMA.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A Krupple-type transcription factor consisting of an N-terminal BTB DOMAIN and nine CYS2-HIS2 ZINC FINGERS. It localizes to the nucleus and regulates cell cycle progression and gene expression for tissue development and homeostasis; it may also function as an epigenetic regulator through its interactions with HISTONE DEACETYLASE. Genetic rearrangements involving the ZBTB16 gene are associated with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...