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An influential model of executive control suggests that it comprises three dissociable processes: working memory, inhibition, and task switching. Multiple studies have investigated how these processes are individually implemented in the human brain. However, few have directly investigated this question using a common task architecture and a within-subjects design. Here, healthy adult humans (N = 22) performed a novel executive control task during fMRI scanning. The paradigm independently manipulated working memory updating, inhibition, and task switching demands, while keeping all other task features constant. Direct contrasts of each executive task with a closely matched control condition revealed a differentiated pattern of recruitment across control tasks: working memory was associated with activity in dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral parietal and insular cortices bilaterally; Inhibition engaged right lateral and superior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobules bilaterally, right middle and inferior temporal cortex, and ventral visual processing regions; Task switching was associated with bilateral activity in medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, as well as left inferior parietal lobule, lateral temporal cortex and right thalamus. A conjunction of all executive versus control task activations revealed common areas of activation overlapping regions of canonical frontal parietal control and dorsal attention networks. Further, multivariate analyses suggest that working memory may be a putative common factor supporting executive functioning. Taken together, these results are consistent with a hybrid model of executive control in the human brain.
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Children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit executive dysfunction on traditional neuropsychological tests. There is limited evidence of different functional network alterations associated with ...
Machine learning techniques have gained prominence for the analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) data. Here, we present an overview of various unsupervised and supe...
The atomic switch has attracted attention for its applications in nonvolatile electric devices. The atomic switch is operated by the formation and dissipation of a metal filament inside a metal sulfid...
Recent work suggests that maladaptive behaviors in genetic developmental disorders may emerge from autonomic dysfunctions impacting higher order executive functions. In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), ex...
This paper provides a worked example of using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) and Parametric Empirical Bayes (PEB) to characterise inter-subject variability in neural circuitry (effective connectivity)...
The goal of this study compare the effectiveness of an electronic note versus a telephone call to alert the prescriber of a possible IV to oral switch. Secondary endpoints are the time-to-...
This is a randomized clinical trial which compares a standard day treatment program for individuals with TBI with the "Executive Plus" program; the latter emphasizes training of attention,...
To determine if treatment with HTL0009936 will lead to changes in neural activity, measured using the fMRI BOLD signal and ASL, in brain areas that are associated with spatial and working ...
This study will test a method of measuring brain blood flow called near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). It will determine whether NIRS gives the same results as the more commonly used techni...
Feasibility study of Central Executive Training (CET) for ADHD. The goal of the current project is to develop and assess the feasibility, acceptability, engagement, and usability of a nove...
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
Mechanism by which changes in neural activity are tightly associated with regional cortical HEMODYNAMICS and metabolism changes. The association is often inferred from NEUROIMAGING signals (e.g., fMRI; or NIR SPECTROSCOPY).
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.