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Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary retinal vascular disorder. Among the various clinical phenotypes of this disease, retinal folds are the primary and typical feature of FEVR. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics, genetic spectrum, or potential phenotype-genotype correlation of retinal folds. Herein, we describe and analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of retinal folds in FEVR. Eighty-nine patients with unilateral or bilateral retinal folds were included in this study. Clinical examinations showed that the retinal folds were bilateral in 37 patients (41.6%). Various retinal abnormalities were noted in the fellow eyes in the remaining 52 patients with unilateral folds. Most of the folds were located temporally (98.4%, 124/126), and were complete (97.6%, 123/126). 67.5% (60/89) probands were genetic confirmed FEVR. 25 novel pathogenic mutations (7 in FZD4, 7 in LRP5, 1 in NDP, 4 in TSPAN12, and 6 in KIF11) were identified in 25 families. Overall, 87.5% (14/16) and 73.7%(14/19) patients with LRP5 and FZD4 mutations were with unilateral folds, respectively.Nevertheless, only 25% (2/8), 36.4%(4/11) and 16.7%(1/6) patients with NDP, TSPAN12, and KIF11 mutations were with unilateral folds. Moreover, 85.7%(12/14),100% (6/6) and 100%(8/8) of the patients with mutated TSPAN12, KIF11, and NDP genes presented with symmetry in disease staging, while 55% and 64.7% of patients with FZD4 and LRP5 mutation displayed symmetry in staging. In conclusion, the majority of retinal folds extended completely and radially in the temporal peripheral retina. Patients with causative mutations in NDP, TSPAN12, or KIF11 were more likely to have bilaterally symmetrical severe retinopathy. In contrast, patients with LRP5 and FZD4 mutations displayed a relatively milder but broader spectrum of phenotypes and a higher frequency of asymmetry.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Experimental eye research
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The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
A state of intersex or sexual ambiguity, involving the GENOTYPE, the GONADS, the reproductive tract, and/or the external GENITALIA or PHENOTYPE. This concept covers TRUE HERMAPHRODITISM and PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM. True hermaphrodites are rare and they possess gonadal tissues of both sexes, tissues from the OVARY and the TESTIS. Pseudohermaphrodites possess gonadal tissue of one sex but exhibit external phenotype of the opposite sex.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
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