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The vertebrate vasculature displays high organotypic specialization, with the structure and function of blood vessels catering to the specific needs of each tissue. A unique feature of the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB regulates substance influx and efflux to maintain a homeostatic environment for proper brain function. Here, we review the development and cell biology of the BBB, focusing on the cellular and molecular regulation of barrier formation and the maintenance of the BBB through adulthood. We summarize unique features of CNS endothelial cells and highlight recent progress in and general principles of barrier regulation. Finally, we illustrate why a mechanistic understanding of the development and maintenance of the BBB could provide novel therapeutic opportunities for CNS drug delivery. Expected final online publication date for the Volume 35 is October 7, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of cell and developmental biology
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The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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