Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Cortical interneurons display striking differences in shape, physiology, and other attributes, challenging us to appropriately classify them. We previously suggested that interneuron types should be defined by their role in cortical processing. Here, we revisit the question of how to codify their diversity based upon their division of labor and function as controllers of cortical information flow. We suggest that developmental trajectories provide a guide for appreciating interneuron diversity and argue that subtype identity is generated using a configurational code of transcription factors that produce attractor states in the underlying gene regulatory network. We present our updated three-stage model for interneuron specification: an initial cardinal step, allocating interneurons into a few major classes, followed by definitive refinement, creating subclasses upon settling within the cortex, and lastly, state determination, reflecting the incorporation of interneurons into functional circuit ensembles. We close by discussing findings indicating that major interneuron classes are both evolutionarily ancient and conserved. We propose that the complexity of cortical circuits is generated by phylogenetically old interneuron types, complemented by an evolutionary increase in principal neuron diversity. This suggests that a natural neurobiological definition of interneuron types might be derived from a match between their developmental origin and computational function. Expected final online publication date for the Volume 43 is July 8, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of neuroscience
Studies have investigated CCR5 haplotypes (HHA, HHB, HHC, HHD, HHE, HHF*1, HHF*2, HHG*1, HHG*2), defined by seven 5'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), CCR2-V64I and CCR5Δ32, in HIV-1 disease...
Genetic regulatory networks control ontogeny. For fifty years Boolean networks have served as models of such systems, ranging from ensembles of random Boolean networks as models for generic properties...
Because of the simple structure and strong flexibility, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have attracted considerable attention among scientific researches and engineering fields during the p...
HIV controllers (HIC) maintain viraemia at low levels without antiretroviral treatment and have small HIV reservoirs. Nevertheless, they are heterogeneous regarding their risk of infection progression...
Learning is accompanied by temporal compression and sharpening of neuronal firing sequences. In this issue of Neuron, Adler et al. (2019), using a motor skill paradigm and its variant, uncover a dual...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of off-the-shelf (OTS) and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video...
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) decreases HIV-associated mortality, it does not to completely restore health. Patients doing well on otherwise effective HAART remain...
Premature infants often receive respiratory support and supplemental oxygen for a prolonged period of time during their admission in the NICU. While maintaining the oxygen saturation withi...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Benralizumab reduces the exacerbation rate in patients with a history of asthma exacerbations and uncontrolled asthma receiving ICS-LABA w...
The purpose of the study is to study the clinicopathologic behaviour of the 3 dangerous types of chronic otitis media that are prone for complications. In which type are the complications ...
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
A vaccine containing L1 capsid proteins from four types of HPV (ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS), types 6, 11, 16 and 18 that is used to prevent infections from HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES of these subtypes.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...