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is the largest family of plant-infecting RNA viruses, encompassing over 30% of known plant viruses. The family is closely related to animal picornaviruses such as enteroviruses and belongs to the picorna-like supergroup. Like all other picorna-like viruses, potyvirids employ polyprotein processing as a gene expression strategy and have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes, most of which are monopartite with a long open reading frame. The potyvirid polyproteins are highly conserved in the central and carboxy-terminal regions. In contrast, the N-terminal region is hypervariable and contains position-specific mutations resulting from transcriptional slippage during viral replication, leading to translational frameshift to produce additional viral proteins essential for viral infection. Some potyvirids even lack one of the N-terminal proteins P1 or helper component-protease and have a genus-specific or species-specific protein instead. This review summarizes current knowledge about the conserved and divergent features of potyvirid genomes and biological relevance and discusses future research directions. Expected final online publication date for the Volume 6 is September 30, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of virology
The species-rich diatom family Chaetocerotaceae is common in the coastal marine phytoplankton worldwide where it is responsible for a substantial part of the primary production. Despite its relevance ...
Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan causative of Chagas disease, is classified into six main Discrete Typing Units (DTUs): TcI-TcVI. This parasite has around 105 copies of the minicircle hypervariable re...
The Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) is an enteric virus of pigs that can cause various disorders. However, there are few reports that describe the molecular characteristics of the PSV genome. In this study,...
The Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2 maintains genome integrity by mediating the cell cycle- and DNA damage-dependent degradation of proteins such as Cdt1, p21, and Set8. Human Cdt2 has two regio...
Whole genome duplications (WGD) occur widely in plants, but the effects of these events impact all branches of life. WGD events have major evolutionary impacts, often leading to major structural chang...
Colorectal cancers (CRC) are the third most common human malignancy, and are also the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Early detection of premalignant lesions such as aden...
The purpose of this proposed project is to test whether several biological factors (such as elevated brain reward region and attention region response to high-calorie foods, weaker inhibit...
It is suggested that P-wave terminal force (Ptf), a product of the amplitude (PAM) and the duration (PT) of the terminal phase of P-wave in lead V1, shows early delay in left atrial conduc...
High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are involved in cervical cancer development. Integration of HR-HPV DNA in cellular genomes is considered as a major event in the cervical cancer dev...
To determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of F105 human monoclonal antibody both following a single dose and during intermittent administration in HIV-infected patients. To determine sp...
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
Antimicrobial peptides that form channels in membranes that are more permeable to anions than cations. They resemble MAGAININS, with their N-terminal region forming a positively charged amphipathic alpha helix, but containing an additional C-terminal segment.
A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...