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Methane (CH) enters waters in hydrocarbon-rich basins because of natural processes and problems related to oil and gas wells. As a redox-active greenhouse gas, CH degrades water or emits to the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. To detect if methane migrated from hydrocarbon wells (i.e., anomalous methane), we examined 20 751 methane-containing groundwaters from the Upper Appalachian Basin (AB). We looked for concentrations (mg/L) that indicated AB brine salts (chloride concentrations ([Cl]) > 30; [Ca]/[Na] < 0.52) to detect natural methane, and we looked for concentrations of redox-active species ([SO] ≥ 6; [Fe] ≥ 0.3) to detect anomalous methane. These indicators highlight natural contamination by methane-containing brines or recent onset of microbial oxidation of methane coupled to iron- or sulfate-reduction. We hypothesized that only waters recently contaminated by methane still exhibit high iron and sulfate concentrations. Of the AB samples, 17 (0.08%) from 12 sites indicated potential contamination. All were located in areas with high densities of shale-gas or conventional oil/gas wells. In contrast, in southwestern Pennsylvania where brines are shallow and coal, oil, and gas all have been extracted extensively, no sites of recent methane migration were detectable. Such indicators may help screen for contamination in some areas even without predrill measurements.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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A drilling technology in which NATURAL GAS is extracted from large deposits of impermeable rock formations known as shale, deep within the earth’s crust. This drilling technique involves injecting large volumes of high-pressure fracturing fluid (a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals) several thousand feet underground, thereby creating cracks or fissures in the shale formation, and releasing trapped gas.
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Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...