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Enhancement of permeability and the retention effect is one of the main pathways for the accumulation of nanomaterials in tumor sites, but poor cellular internalization and rapid clearance of nanomaterials always hamper the efficacy of imaging diagnosis and treatment. With the consideration of both high tumor accumulation and cellular internalization, positively charged nanomaterials can adhere to the tumor cell membrane by an electrostatic force, which is conducive to cellular internalization, but they are easily recognized and cleared during blood circulation. However, negatively charged nanomaterials show an enhanced stealth-like effect and possess a long blood circulation time, which is conducive to tumor accumulation. Therefore, in this work, on the basis of the shielding effect of citrate ions to positive charge and the protonation under an acidic tumor microenvironment, pH-sensitive sodium citrate-modified polyaniline nanoshuttles (NSs) with negative charge during blood circulation but positive charge in tumor sites are designed. With this hierarchical targeting strategy, the blood circulation half-life increases from 4.35 to 7.33 h, and the retention rate of NSs in tumors increases from 5.29 to 8.57% ID/g. Because the retention rate of NSs is increased, the magnetic resonance imaging resolution and signal intensity are significantly improved. A synergistic treatment of tumors is further achieved by means of photothermal therapy with laser irradiation and chemotherapy via heat-stimulated drug release.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS applied materials & interfaces
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The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.
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