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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a chronic form of leukemia that originates from an abnormal expansion of CD5 B-1 cells. Deregulation in the BCR signaling is associated with B-cell transformation. Contrariwise to B-2 cells, BCR engagement in B-1 cells results in low proliferation rate and increased apoptosis population, whereas overactivation may be associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. It has been demonstrated that several transcription factors that are involved in the B cell development play a role in the regulation of BCR function. Among them, Ikaros is considered an essential regulator of lymphoid differentiation and activation. Several reports suggest that Ikaros expression is deregulated in different forms of leukemia. Herein, we demonstrated that CLL cells show decreased Ikaros expression and abnormal cytoplasmic cell localization. These alterations were also observed in radioresistant B-1 cells, which present high proliferative activity, suggesting that abnormal localization of Ikaros could determine its loss of function. Furthermore, Ikaros knockdown increased the expression of BCR pathway components in murine B-1 cells, such as Lyn, Blnk, and CD19. Additionally, in the absence of Ikaros, B-1 cells become responsive to BCR stimulus, increasing cell proliferation even in the absence of antigen stimulation. These results suggested that Ikaros is an important controller of B-1 cell proliferation by interfering with the BCR activity. Therefore, altered Ikaros expression in CLL or radioresistant B-1 cells could determine a responsive status of BCR to self-antigens, which would culminate in the clonal expansion of B-1 cells.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of leukocyte biology
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A transcription factor that plays a role as a key regulator of HEMATOPOIESIS. Aberrant Ikaros expression has been associated with LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA.
A moderately malignant neoplasm composed of primitive neuroectodermal cells dispersed in myxomatous or fibrous stroma intermixed with mature ganglion cells. It may undergo transformation into a neuroblastoma. It arises from the sympathetic trunk or less frequently from the adrenal medulla, cerebral cortex, and other locations. Cervical ganglioneuroblastomas may be associated with HORNER SYNDROME and the tumor may occasionally secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide, resulting in chronic diarrhea.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)