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Blood-based biomarkers in the maternal circulation associated with fetal growth restriction.

08:00 EDT 12th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Blood-based biomarkers in the maternal circulation associated with fetal growth restriction."

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with 3-4 fold increased risk of stillbirth. Identifying FGR, through its commonly-used surrogate - the small-for-gestational-age (SGA, estimated fetal weight and/or abdominal circumference <10 centile) fetus - and instituting fetal surveillance and timely delivery decreases stillbirth risk. Methods available to clinicians for antenatal identification of SGA fetuses have surprisingly poor sensitivity. About 80% of cases remain undetected. Measuring the symphysis-fundal height detects only 20% of SGA fetuses, and even universal third trimester ultrasound detects, at best, 57% of those born SGA. There is an urgent need to find better ways to identify this at-risk cohort. This review summarises efforts to identify molecular biomarkers (proteins, metabolites or ribonucleic acids) that could be used to better predict FGR. Most studies examining potential biomarkers to date have utilised case-control study designs without proceeding to validation in independent cohorts. To develop a robust test for FGR, large prospective studies are required with a priori validation plans and cohorts. Given that current clinical care detects 20% of SGA fetuses, even a screening test with ≥60% sensitivity at 90% specificity could be clinically useful, if developed. This may be an achievable aspiration. If discovered, such a test may decrease stillbirth.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Prenatal diagnosis
ISSN: 1097-0223
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.

Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)

A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.

Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.

The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.

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