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Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with 3-4 fold increased risk of stillbirth. Identifying FGR, through its commonly-used surrogate - the small-for-gestational-age (SGA, estimated fetal weight and/or abdominal circumference <10 centile) fetus - and instituting fetal surveillance and timely delivery decreases stillbirth risk. Methods available to clinicians for antenatal identification of SGA fetuses have surprisingly poor sensitivity. About 80% of cases remain undetected. Measuring the symphysis-fundal height detects only 20% of SGA fetuses, and even universal third trimester ultrasound detects, at best, 57% of those born SGA. There is an urgent need to find better ways to identify this at-risk cohort. This review summarises efforts to identify molecular biomarkers (proteins, metabolites or ribonucleic acids) that could be used to better predict FGR. Most studies examining potential biomarkers to date have utilised case-control study designs without proceeding to validation in independent cohorts. To develop a robust test for FGR, large prospective studies are required with a priori validation plans and cohorts. Given that current clinical care detects 20% of SGA fetuses, even a screening test with ≥60% sensitivity at 90% specificity could be clinically useful, if developed. This may be an achievable aspiration. If discovered, such a test may decrease stillbirth.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Prenatal diagnosis
During the third trimester of development, the human fetus accumulates fat, an important energy reservoir during the early postnatal period. The fetal liver, perfused by the nutrient-rich and well-oxy...
Background There is little available data on fetal monocyte phenotype and function. A prospective cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to describe the cord blood monocyte subset phenotype in pree...
To quantify spontaneous and provoked fetal to maternal cell exchange in the first half of pregnancy. Transfer of fetal red blood cells (FRBCs) into the maternal circulation during the first half of pr...
A Silicon-based Coral-like Nanostructured Microfluidics to Isolate Rare Cells in Human Circulation: Validation by SK-BR-3 Cancer Cell Line and Its Utility in Circulating Fetal Nucleated Red Blood Cells.
Circulating fetal cells (CFCs) in maternal blood are rare but have a strong potential to be the target for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD). "Cell Reveal system" is a silicon-based microfluidic p...
Bisphenol A (BPA), S (BPS), and F (BPF) are among the most abundant bisphenols detected in humans, yet pregnancy toxicokinetics for BPS or BPF remain unknown. Because gestational BPS can disrupt place...
The hypothesis of this study is that maternal and fetal biologic variation in the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators can be measured by currently available te...
The aim of our study is to assess the effect of vaginal progestrone on fetal and maternal doppler indices
The purpose of this study is to detect if adding resistance to maternal blood flow from the arm will help increase the blood flow through the uterine arteries to the placenta and the baby.
Whole blood from pregnant women will be collected to develop a noninvasive fetal sex test.
In 2010, Simamura et al have demonstrated in a rat model that one of the pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the Interleukin-6 family cytokines, LIF, is required for the proliferation o...
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...