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Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is often associated with inflammation-related disorders such as metritis and mastitis. The protein encoded by the Ca2+ release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1) gene is a membrane Ca2+ channel subunit that is activated when Ca2+ stores are depleted. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) have a crucial role in the defense against infection through migration, adhesion, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to pathogens. Whether hypocalcemia affects the activity of PMNL and if ORAI1 is involved remains unknown. To address this, PMNL were isolated at 3 d of calving from dairy cows diagnosed as clinically healthy (n = 20, CONTROL) or with plasma concentration of calcium < 2.0 mmol/L as a criterion for diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcemia (n = 20, HYPOCAL). PMNL isolated from both groups of cows were treated with or without the sarcoendoplasmic Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, Ca2+ ionophore Ionomycin, and ORAI1 blocker 2APB. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration, ORAI1 abundance, ROS, phagocytosis rate, migration, and adhering capacity of treated PMNL were evaluated. Some of the in vitro assays also included use of small interfering ORAI1 RNA (siORAI1), 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, or 100 nM parathyroid hormone (PTH). Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was markedly lower in HYPOCAL. In addition, ORAI1 was detected in PMNL plasma membrane via FACS and was markedly lower in cows with HYPOCAL. Migration, adhesion capacity, and phagocytosis rate of PMNL were lower in response to HYPOCAL. Furthermore, plasma and PMNL concentration of nucleosome assembly protein (NAP2) and pro-platelet basic protein (CXCL7) was markedly lower with HYPOCAL. All these changes were associated with lower ROS production by PMNL. Thapsigargin and ionomycin treatment in vitro increased ORAI1 expression, migration of PMNL, adhering capacity, phagocytosis rate, and ROS production; conversely, those effects were abrogated by siORAI1 and ORAI1 inhibitor 2APB treatment. Also cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and ORAI1 abundance were increased by 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH supplementation. Overall, the data indicate that failure of PMNL to uptake Ca2+ due to downregulation of ORAI1 during subclinical hypocalcemia is a factor contributing to impaired PMNL function. In addition, plasma PTH or 1,25(OH)2D3 could regulate ORAI1 and also participate in the regulation of PMNL activity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of animal science
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The pore-forming subunit of calcium release activated calcium channels. It is activated by STROMAL INTERACTION MOLECULE 1 upon intracellular calcium depletion.
Specialized calcium channels that localize to the ENDOPLAMSIC RETICULUM and PLASMA MEMBRANE. They contain the pore subunit ORAI1 PROTEIN which is activated by STROMAL INTERACTION MOLECULES upon intracellular calcium depletion.
A stromal interaction molecule that functions in the regulation of calcium influx following depletion of intracellular calcium in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It translocates to the plasma membrane upon calcium depletion where it activates the CALCIUM RELEASE ACTIVATED CALCIUM CHANNEL ORAI1.
A calcium release-activated calcium-like (CRAC-like) channel subunit which functions with STROMAL INTERACTION MOLECULE 1 to regulate cell calcium influx and increase (Ca2+)-selective current.
A stromal interaction molecule that functions as a highly sensitive calcium sensor in the ENDOPLAMSIC RETICULUM and CYTOSOL. It can regulate CALCIUM RELEASE ACTIVATED CALCIUM CHANNELS in response to minor variations in intracellular calcium.
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