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The East African Indian (EAI) and Central Asian (CAS) lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) mainly infect tuberculosis (TB) patients in the eastern hemisphere which contains many of the 22 high TB burden countries including China and India. We investigated if phylogeographical, epidemiological and demographical characteristics for these 2 lineages differed in SITVIT2 database. Genotyping results and associated data (age, sex, HIV serology, drug resistance) on EAI and CAS lineages (n = 10,974 strains) were extracted. Phylogenetic and Bayesian, and other statistical analyses were used to compare isolates. The male/female sex ratio was 907/433 (2.09) for the EAI group vs. 881/544 (1.62) for CAS (p-value<0.002). The proportion of younger patients aged 0-20 yrs. with CAS lineage was significantly higher than for EAI lineage (18.07% vs. 10.85%, p-value<0.0001). The proportion of multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant TB among CAS group (30.63% and 1.03%, respectively) was significantly higher than in the EAI group (12.14% and 0.29%, respectively; p-value<0.0001). Lastly, the proportion of HIV+ patients was 20.34% among the EAI group vs. 3.46% in the CAS group (p-value<0.0001). This remarkable split observed between various parameters for these 2 lineages was further corroborated by their geographic distribution profile (EAI being predominantly found in Eastern-Coast of Africa, South-India and Southeast Asia, while CAS was predominantly found in Afghanistan, Pakistan, North India, Nepal, Middle-east, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania). Some geo-specificities were highlighted. This study demonstrated a remarkable cleavage for aforementioned characteristics of EAI and CAS lineages, showing a North-South divide along the tropic of cancer in Eastern hemisphere-mainly in Asia, and partly prolonged along the horn of Africa. Such studies would be helpful to better comprehend prevailing TB epidemic in context of its historical spread and evolutionary features, and provide clues to better treatment and patient-care in countries and regions concerned by these lineages.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
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