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Clubroot caused by is an important disease of brassica crops. The use of vital stains to determine the viability of resting spores can provide useful information regarding spore longevity, inoculum potential, or the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments. Evans blue is one example of a vital stain that has been reported to differentially stain viable and nonviable resting spores. Some previously published protocols using Evans blue to stain resting spores have not provided accurate or consistent results. In this study, we modified the Evans blue method by increasing the staining time to 8 h or more and evaluated resting spores after heat treatment at various combinations of temperature and time. Extending staining times significantly increased the numbers of stained resting spores up to 7 h, after which the numbers of stained spores did not change significantly ( = 96.88; ≤ 0.001). The accuracy of the modified method to discriminate viable and nonviable spores was evaluated in repeated experiments and by comparing the staining data with those derived from inoculation assays and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results demonstrated that the modified Evans blue staining method improved the accuracy and consistency of measurement of resting spore viability. Additionally, it was equivalent to the qPCR method for differentiating viable and nonviable spores ( = 99.84; ≤ 0.001) and confirmed in canola infection bioassays.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant disease
The purpose of the study was to validate by histopathology, contrast enhanced cine steady-state free precession and T2-weighted CMR for the assessment of ischemic myocardial area-at-risk (AAR) in the ...
A diminished-staining artifact is observed in some Mohs frozen sections that are stained in toluidine blue (T-blue). Such an artifact, not yet described in the literature, may interfere with a Mohs su...
Research supports the need for regionally and ethnically specific validated data as the reference base for age estimation techniques. This retrospective study evaluated the accuracy of three dental ag...
The 14-3-3 proteins are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal damage during infectious meningitis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Little is known about dynamic changes in the individual isoform...
Intraoperative margin assessment is imperative to cancer cure but is a continued challenge to successful surgery. Breast conserving surgery is a relevant example, where a cosmetically improved outcome...
This study examines the use of Trypan Blue staining of the corneal endothelium in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. It is a single-center prospective, randomized individual cohort s...
To describe and evaluate the mucosal staining efficacy of Methylene Blue MMX® tablets after total oral doses of 150 or 200 mg in patients undergoing a full colonoscopy for various reasons...
Characterization of the genetic causes, and of the immunopathological clinical and biological manifestations in children with pediatric Evans syndrome included in a prospective national ob...
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures, such as visceral lymphatic mapping using isosulfan blue, may help find cancer of the pancreas, colon, stomach, small intestine, or gallbladder and find ou...
To conduct surveillance of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and its correlation with known risk factors in all cohort study groups in Evans County, Georgia.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
A congenital disease caused by an inborn error involving APOLIPOPROTEINS E leading to abnormal LIPID METABOLISM and the accumulation of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, particularly SPHINGOMYELINS in the HISTIOCYTES. This disorder is characterized by SPLENOMEGALY and the sea-blue histiocytes in the spleen and bone marrow after May Grunwald staining.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Organisms that have been genetically modified include micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeast, insects, plants, fish, an...
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...