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Anthrax is a dangerous bio-terror agent because spores are highly resilient and can be easily aerosolized and disseminated. There is a threat of deliberate use of anthrax spores aerosol that could lead to serious fatal diseases outbreaks. Existing control measures against inhalation form of the disease are limited. All of this has provided an impetus to the development of new generation vaccines. Areas сovered: This review is devoted to challenges and achievements in the design of vaccines based on the anthrax recombinant protective antigen (rPA). Scientific databases have been searched, focusing on causes of PA instability and solutions to this problem, including new approaches of rPA expression, novel rPA-based vaccines formulations as well as the simultaneous usage of PA with other anthrax antigens. Expert Opinion: PA is a central anthrax toxin component, playing a key role in the defense against encapsulated and unencapsulated strains. Subunit rPA-based vaccines have a good safety and protective profile. However, there are problems of PA instability that are greatly enhanced when using aluminum adjuvants. New adjuvant compositions, dry formulations and resistant to proteolysis and deamidation mutant PA forms can help to handle this issue. Devising a modern anthrax vaccine requires huge efforts.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert review of vaccines
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Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
ANTHRAX outbreak that occurred in 1979 and was associated with a research facility in Sverdlovsk, in the Ural mountain region of central RUSSIA. Most victims worked or lived in a narrow zone extending from the facility. The zone of anthrax-caused livestock mortality paralleled the northerly wind that prevailed shortly before the outbreak. It was concluded that an escape of ANTHRAX caused outbreak.
Specialized clothing or equipment worn for protection against health hazards. Personal Protective Equipment may include MASKS; RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES; HEAD PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EAR PROTECTIVE DEVICES; PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; and protective footwear.
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